TAMERLANE

“Nothing to do with islam,” terrorist’s father says

– while naming one of his kids after THIS GUY!

TAMERLANE

TAMERLANE

*The Timurid Jihad Conquests – An Overview*

Amir Timur (whose name signifies “Iron” in Turkish) was born at Kash (Shahr-i-
Sebz, the “Green City”) in Transoxiana (some fifty miles south of Samarkand in
modern Uzbekistan), on April 8 (or 11), 1336 CEo Amir Turghay, his father, was
chief of the Gurgan or Chagtai branch of the Barlas Turks. By age thirty-four
(1369/70), Timur had killed his major rival (Mir Husain), becoming the preemi-
nent ruler of Transoxiana. He spent the next six to seven years consolidating his
power in Transoxiana before launching the aggressive conquests of Persia,
Afghanistan, and Iraq, and then attacking Hindustan (India) under the tottering
Delhi Sultanate.

Rene Grousset contrasts Jenghiz Khan’s “straightforward planning” and
“clean sweeps” with the “higgledy-piggledy” order of Timur’s expeditions, and
the often incomplete nature of the latter’s conquests:

Tamerlane’s [Timur’s] conquering activities were carried on from the Volga to
Damascus, from Smyrna to the Ganges and the Yulduz, and his expeditions into
these regions followed no geographical order. He sped from Tashkent to Shiraz,
from Tabriz to Khodzhent, as enemy aggression dictated; a campaign in Russia
occurred between two in Persia, an expedition into Central Asia between two
raids into the Caucasus. … [Timur] at the end of every successful campaign left
the country without making any dispositions for its control except Khwarizm and
Persia, and even there not until the very end. It is true that he slaughtered all his
enemies as thoroughly and conscientiously as the great Mongol, and the pyra-
mids of human heads left behind him as a warning example tell their own tale.

Just one of Tamerlane's many pyramids of trophy skulls

Just one of Tamerlane’s many pyramids of trophy skulls

Yet the survivors forgot the lesson given them and soon resumed secret or overt
attempts at rebellion, so that it was all to do again. It appears too, that these
bloodsoaked pyramids diverted [Timur] from the essential objective. Baghdad,
Brussa (Bursa), Sarai, Kara Shahr, and Delhi were all sacked by him, but he did
not overcome the Ottoman Empire, the Golden Horde, the khanate of Mogholistan,
or the Indian Sultanate; and even the Jelairs of Iraq ‘Arabi rose up again as
soon as he had passed. Thus he had to conquer Khwarizm three times, the ill six
or seven times (without ever managing to hold it for longer than the duration of
the campaign), eastern Persia twice, western Persia at least three times, in
addition to waging two campaigns in Russia. . . [Timur’s] campaigns “always had
to be fought again,” and fight them again he did.

Timur’s campaigns are infamous for their extensive massacres and emblematic “pyramids of heads.” E. G. Brown cites “only a few” prominent examples:

As specimens of those acts mention may be made of his massacre of the people
of Sistan 1383-4, when he caused some two thousand prisoners to be built up
into a wall; his cold-blooded slaughter of a hundred thousand captive Indians
near Dihli [Delhi] (December, 1398); his burying alive of four thousand Arme-
nians in 1400-1, and the twenty towers of skulls erected by him at Aleppo and
Damascus in the same year; and his massacre of 70,000 of the inhabitants of
Isfahan in (November, 1387).

Grousset emphasizes the important Islamic motivation for Timur’s cam-
paigns: “It is the Qur’an to which he continually appeals, the imams and dervishes
who prophesy his success. His wars were to influence the character of the jihad,
the Holy War, even when – as was almost always the case – he was fighting Mus-
lims. He had only to accuse these Muslims of lukewarmness, whether the
Jagataites of the IIi and Uiguria, whose conversion was so recent, or the Sultans
of Delhi who … refrained from massacring their millions of Hindu subjects.”
The Turkish chronicle *Malfuzat-i-Timuri,* a putative autobiographical memoir
of Timur, translated into Persian by Abu Talib Husaini, illustrates these driving
sentiments, complete with a Qur’ anic quotation:

About this time there arose in my heart the desire to lead an expedition against
the infidels, and to become a ghazi; for it had reached my ears that the slayer of
infidels is a ghazi, and if he is slain he becomes a martyr. It was on this account
that I formed this resolution, but I was undetermined in my mind whether I
should direct my expedition against the infidels of China or against the infidels
and polytheists of India. In this matter I sought an omen from the Qur’an, and
the verse I opened upon [Q66:9] was this, “O Prophet, make war upon infidels
and unbelievers, and treat them with severity.” My great officers told me that the
inhabitants of Hindustan were infidels and unbelievers. In obedience to the order
of Almighty Allah I ordered an expedition against them.

Tamerlane SMASH!

Tamerlane SMASH!

Timur’s jihad campaigns against non-Muslims – whether Christians in Asia
Minor and Georgia or Hindus in India – seemed to intensify in brutality. Brown
highlights one particular episode that supports this contention, wherein Timur
clearly distinguished between his vanquished Muslim and non-Muslim foes. After
rampaging through (Christian) Georgia, where he “devastated the country,
destroyed the churches, and slew great numbers of inhabitants,” in the winter of
1399-1400, Timur, in August 1400, “began his march into Asia Minor by way of
Avnik, Erzeroum, Erzinjan, and Sivas. The latter place offered a stubborn resist-
ance, and when it finally capitulated Timur caused all the Armenian and Christian
soldiers to be buried alive; but the Muhammadans he spared.”

TYPICAL; BURYING ALIVE PRISONERS OF WAR WHO HAD SURRENDERED.

;-(

The unparalleled devastation Timur wrought upon predominantly Hindu
India further bolsters the notion that Timur viewed his non-Muslim prey with par-
ticular animosity. Moreover; there are specific examples of selective brutality
directed against Hindus, cited in the *Malfuzat-i-Timuri,* from which Muslims are
deliberately spared:

My great object in invading Hindustan had been to wage a religious war against
the infidel Hindus, and it now appeared to me that it was necessary for me to put
down these Jats [Hindus]. On the 9th of the month I dispatched the baggage from
Tohana, and on the same day I marched into the jungles and wilds, and slew
2,000 demon-like Jats. I made their wives and children captives, and plundered
their cattle and property. . . . On the same day a party of saiyids, who dwelt in the
vicinity, came with courtesy and humility to wait upon me and were very gra-
ciously received. In my reverence for the race of the prophet, I treated their chiefs
with great honour.

On the 29th I again marched and reached the river Jumna. On the other side
of the river I [viewed] a fort, and upon making inquiry about it, I was informed
that it consisted of a town and fort, called Loni. . . . I determined to take that fort
at once. . . . Many of the Rajputs placed their wives and children in their houses
and burned them, then they rushed to the battle and were killed. Other men of the
garrison fought and were slain, and a great many were taken prisoners. Next day
I gave orders that the Musalman prisoners should be separated and saved, but
that the infidels should all be despatched to hell with the proselytizing sword. I also
ordered that the houses of the saiyids, shaikhs and learned Musulmans should be
preserved but that all the other houses should be plundered and the fort
destroyed. It was done as I directed and a great booty was obtained.

On the 16th of the month some incidents occurred which led to the sack of
the city of Delhi, and to the slaughter of many of the infidel inhabitants. . . . On
that day, Thursday, and all the night of Friday, nearly 15,000 Turks were engaged
in slaying, plundering, and destroying. … The following day, Saturday, the 17th,
all passed in the same way, and the spoil was so great that each man secured from
fifty to a hundred prisoners – men, women, and children. There was no man who
took less than twenty. The other booty was immense in rubies, diamonds, pearls
and other gems; jewels of gold and silver, ashrafis, tankas of gold and silver of
the celebrated’ Alai coinage; vessels of gold and silver; and brocades and silks
of great value. Gold and silver ornaments of the Hindu women were obtained in
such quantities as to exceed all account. Excepting the quarter of the saiyids, the
‘ulama and the other Musulmans, the whole city was sacked.

Timur left Samarkand with a large, powerful expeditionary force destined for
India in April 1398. By October he had besieged Talamba, seventy-five miles
northeast of Multan, subsequently plundering the town and massacring its inhab-
itants. He reached the vicinity of Delhi during the first week of December having
forged a path of destruction – pillaging, razing, and massacring – en route through
Pat Patan, Dipalpur, Bhatnar, Sirsa, and Kaithal. Prior to fighting and defeating
an army under Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Tughluq on December 17, 1398,
Timur had his forces butcher in cold blood one hundred thousand Hindu prisoners
accumulated while advancing toward Delhi.22o A. L. Srivastava describes what
transpired after Timur’s forces occupied Delhi on December 18, 1398:

The citizens of the capital, headed by the ulema, waited on the conqueror and
begged quarter. Timur agreed to spare the citizens; but, owing to the oppressive
conduct of the soldiers of the invading force, the people of the city were obliged
to offer resistance. Timur now ordered a general plunder and massacre which
lasted for several days. Thousands of the citizens of Delhi were murdered and
thousands were made prisoners. A historian writes: “High towers were built with
the head of the Hindus, and their bodies became the food of ravenous beasts and
birds … such of the inhabitants who escaped alive were made prisoners.”

Timur acquired immense booty, as well as Delhi’s best (surviving) artisans,
who were conscripted and sent to Samarkand to construct for him the famous
Friday mosque. Leaving Delhi on January 1, 1399, for their return march to
Samarkand, Timur’s forces stormed Meerut on January 19, before encountering
and defeating two Hindu armies near Hardwar. The Malfuzat-i- Timuri indicates
that at Hardwar, Timur’s army

displayed great courage and daring; they made their swords their banners, and
exerted themselves in slaying the foe (during a bathing festival on the bank of the
Ganges). They slaughtered many of the infidels, and pursued those who fled to
the mountains. So many of them were killed that their blood ran down the moun-
tains and plain, and thus (nearly) all were sent to hell. The few who escaped,
wounded, weary, and half dead, sought refuge in the defiles of the hills. Their
property and goods, which exceeded all computation, and their countless cows
and buffaloes, fell as spoil into the hands of my victorious soldiers.

Timur then traversed the Sivalik Hills to Kanra, which was pillaged and
sacked, along with Jammu, “everywhere the inhabitants being slaughtered like cattle.”

Srivastava summarizes India’s devastated condition following Timur’s departure:

Timur left [India] prostrate and bleeding. There was utter confusion and misery
throughout northern India. [India’s] northwestern provinces, including northern
tracts of Rajasthan and Delhi, were so thoroughly ravaged, plundered and even
burnt that it took these parts many years, indeed, to recover their prosperity.
Lakhs [hundreds of thousands] of men, and in some cases, many women and
children, too, were butchered in cold blood. The rabi crops [grown in
October/November, harvested around March, including barley, mustard, and
wheat] standing in the field were completely destroyed for many miles on both
sides of the invader’s long and double route from the Indus to Delhi and back.
Stores of grain were looted or destroyed. Trade, coonerce and other signs of
material prosperity disappeared. The city of Delhi was depopulated and ruined.
It was without a master or a caretaker. There was scarcity and virulent famine in
the capital and its suburbs. This was followed by a pestilence caused by the pol-
lution of the air and water by thousands of uncared-for dead bodies. In the words
of the historian Badauni, “those of the inhabitants who were left died (of famines
and pestilence), while for two months not a bird moved wing in Delhi.”

The thirteenth-century chronicler Bar Hebraeus (d. 1286) provided this con-
temporary assessment of how the adoption of Islam radically altered Mongol atti-
tudes toward their Christian subjects: “And having seen very much modesty and
other habits of this kind among Christian people, certainly the Mongols loved
them greatly at the beginning of their kingdom, a time ago somewhat short. But
their love hath turned to such intense hatred that they cannot even see them with
their eyes approvingly, because they have all alike become Muslims, myriads of
people and peoples.”

Bar Hebraeus’s observations should be borne in mind when evaluating
Grousset’s uncompromising overall assessment of Timur’s deeds and motiva-
tions. After recounting Timur’s 1403 ravages in Georgia, slaughtering the inhab-
itants, and destroying all the Christian churches of Tiflis, Grousset states:

It has been noted that the Jenghiz-Khanite Mongol invasion of the thirteenth cen-
tury was less cruel, for the Mongols were mere barbarians who killed simply
because for centuries this had been the instinctive behavior of nomad herdsmen
toward sedentary farmers. To this ferocity Tamerlane [Timur] added a taste for
religious murder. He killed from Qur’anic piety. He represents a synthesis, prob-
ably unprecedented in history, of Mongol barbarity and Muslim fanaticism, and
symbolizes that advanced form of primitive slaughter which is murder com-
mitted for the sake of an abstract ideology, as a duty and a sacred mission.

From Dr. Andrew Bostom’s book, Legacy of Jihad.

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About unclevladdi

Vojvoda
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